Tipi edilizi tradizionali di Adrano: aspetti fondamentali

Ciò che caratterizza fortemente gli aspetti spaziali del nostro centro storico è l’insieme degli edifici tradizionali che formano il sistema insediativo del tessuto antico della città. Questi edifici, sono stati costruiti nel corso dei secoli seguendo alcuni modelli spaziali e funzionali consueti che hanno portato alla formazione di tipi edilizi consolidati.
Il tipo edilizio più antico e diffuso nel tessuto del nostro centro storico è certamente la cosiddetta “casa terrana”, formata da uno o due vani a solo piano terra, in genere su un lotto di forma rettangolare, con un lato confinante con la strada pubblica.

Fig. 1 Il fronte principale della casa terrana, con lato corto confinante con la strada.

A seconda della disposizione del lotto, questa poteva avere il lato corto confinante con la strada e le falde del tetto perpendicolari al fronte principale, oppure essa poteva essere confinante con la strada attraverso il lato lungo, con la linea di colmo e le falde del tetto parallele al fronte su strada (vedi fig. 1 e 2)
Questo tipo edilizio, presente sin dal medioevo, era quello più usato per le abitazioni dei ceti sociali popolari, ma poteva anche essere usato come stalla, magazzino o bottega, anche in promiscuità con la parte abitativa.

Fig. 2: casa terrana con fronte principale sul lato lungo del lotto


Altro tipo edilizio abbastanza diffuso sino all’Ottocento è stato la casa “solerata” con scala esterna. Si tratta di un tipo più antico rispetto alla classica casa a schiera ottocentesca con scala interna e terrazzo superiore. Ormai sono rimasti pochissimi esempi, in parte anche modificati, nel nostro centro storico. La caratteristica principale di questa tipologia (vedi fig. 3 ) è quella di avere un accesso al primo piano tramite scala esterna, mentre al piano terra si accede attraverso una porta sotto la volta a botte che sostiene il pianerottolo di sbarco della scala.

Fig. 3: Fronte principale della casa solerata con scala esterna.

La parte abitabile era in genere costituita da uno o due vani al primo piano, mentre il piano terra era quasi sempre una stalla. Nel fronte principale, oltre alla scala con la porta di accesso sul pianerottolo, poteva esserci anche una finestra di luce in uno dei due lati.
Verso la fine del Settecento ed ancor più nel secolo successivo, si diffonde un altro importante tipo edilizio, la cosiddetta “casa a schiera”, come residenza della piccola borghesia agraria o artigianale. Si tratta di un tipo edilizio sviluppatosi maggiormente nel corso dell’800 e nei primi decenni del ‘900.
Nella sua forma più semplice, (vedi fig. 4 ) presenta un fronte principale con un solo balcone, oltre la finestra, quindi di larghezza limitata. Può avere anche un affaccio secondario, su una via laterale o posta sul retro, sul lato opposto dell’isolato.

Fig. 4. Casa a schiera: fronte principale su strada; variante ad un solo balcone sul fronte.

Il fronte principale può presentarsi nella variante a due balconi, oltre la finestra, e quindi avere una larghezza quasi doppia di quella a un solo balcone. La scala occupa in genere un lato del volume dell’edificio e si presenta quasi sempre con due rampe sovrapposte e parallele.
Oltre alla casa a schiera, altra tipologia relativamente diffusa è stata la casa con corte interna. Si tratta di un tipo edilizio caratterizzato dalla presenza di un cortile e scala ad una o due rampe che si collega con l’ingresso all’abitazione al primo piano. Al piano terra vi potevano essere degli ambienti adibiti a bottega o a stalla, alcuni dei quali accessibili dal fronte principale o dall’interno della corte. Il portone principale di accesso alla corte poteva in alcuni casi essere coperto da un terrazzino passante,collegato con il pianerottolo di sbarco della scala.

Fig. 5: Fronte principale con portone di ingresso della casa con cortile.


Gli edifici appartenenti a questa tipologia potevano essere costituiti da un unico corpo di fabbrica affiancato dalla corte, oppure da due corpi raccordati ad “L” con la corte che confina con ambedue i corpi, come rappresentato in fig. 5. Dopo la casa terrana e la casa a schiera, è stato il tipo più diffuso nel tessuto del centro storico di Adrano.
Le illustrazioni a corredo di questo articolo sono state realizzate dal sottoscritto in occasione di una importante conferenza, organizzata dall’associazione di architetti LaboratorioSimeto, sul tema della regolamentazione degli interventi edilizi nel centro storico (“Linee guida per gli interventi al centro storico”, 27 dicembre 2012), di cui fui uno dei relatori della parte introduttiva,  con una presentazione dedicata proprio alle tipologie edilizie tradizionali del centro storico di Adrano.
Certamente queste sono solo alcune caratteristiche basilari di questi tipi edilizi, ed inoltre non sono stati presi in considerazione i tipi edilizi delle classi sociali più ricche e nobiliari, o altre tipologie specialistiche come i tipi dell’edilizia conventuale, anch’essi relativamente presenti nel tessuto storico di Adrano, ma spero di trattare tali tipologie in un prossimo articolo.
Alfredo La Manna

149 Commenti

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    what I wrote and say, I’m thoroughly enjoying your blog.
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    • Scusa se non scrivo in inglese ma non sono bravo in questo. Anche io non sono esperto in blog, ma il mio sito non è un vero e proprio blog ma un sito web di carattere storico dove si possono fare dei commenti; una parte contiene dei testi ricavati da anticgi libri ed una altra sezione del sito contiene degli articoli, sempre dedicati al territorio e alla città di Adrano in Sicilia, ciao grazie
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